The use of biological fuel cells offers a solution to the energy crisis by harvesting energy from organic wastes and renewable biomass. microbial fuel cell is capable of directly converting chemical energy present in the organic materials to electricity using microorganism as catalyst. however, poor microbial metabolic as well as electrode kinetics result in low performance. high power output using optimized system architecture and mixed population of microbial consortia from natural habitat has been tried. efforts are being made to enhance bacterial kinetics by developing metabolic activators, reduce activation losses by improving electrode design to enhance power density, and improve the design to minimize charge transports losses by introducing turbulence in the flow.